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17. Aquatic, Always Submerged

These are strict aquatics which don't tolerate desiccation but are always submerged. All are pollution scavengers, good for monitoring contamination. Chiloscyphus polyanthos is an indicator of pure water. These and splash zone bryophytes harbor stream insects.




Chiloscyphus polyanthus.



Fissidens ventricosus.



Fontinalis neomexicana.


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